Understanding the what, how, where
of EU Cohesion policy with categorisation data

What are we talking about? Why it is important?
Cohesion policy 2014-2020 comprises EUR 355 billion of EU budget delivered in 3 funds - ERDF, Cohesion Fund and ESF/YEI through 390 programmes in national, regional and Interreg programmes. These funds support investment is a wider range of thematic areas, in different forms and through different mechanisms.  In order to understand, monitor and communicate with stakeholders on such a complex policy it is essential that there strong information gathering tools in place. 
The main objective of the categorisation system is
to establish a "nomenclature" for the categorisation of financial data, in order to ensure reliable and comparable monitoring data on the use of the Funds
The system is an information system (not a strict accounting system) and has proven its value 
  • a useful source of information in the programming or planning of investment and the implementation of those plans over the period;
  • as input for studies, evaluation and performance audits;
  • for the tracking of the financing of climate actions;
  • in communicating on the policy.
In short the system answers a multitude of question on investment budgets, per sector, progress in delivery, the type of territory, the form of financing, and much more. In this article we explore the nature of the system, distinguishing between data on the planned use and data on implementation.  We also highlight the different specific uses linked to climate tracking and biodiversity tracking and flag the datasets that are available thorough #ESIFopendata 
1. Programming documents contain ex ante information on planned use of EU resources
The 2014-2020 programme documents provide information on the planned use of EU resources (by priority axis) in 4 dimensions for ERDF / CF and 5 dimension for ESF / YEI.  In this chart you can see that the dimension overlap. 
  • Intervention field: what actions, sectors are being financed? (123 codes)
  • Form of finance: how is it being financed? (7 codes)
  • Territory: is it in an urban, rural, other area? (7 codes) 
  • Territorial Delivery mechanism: is a specific delivery mechanism planned? (7 codes)
  • ESF secondary theme: Is there a specific secondary theme targeted by ESF support?  (8 codes)
For 3 dimensions the data is comprehensive; for territorial delivery it is partial (technical assistance is not reported); for the ESF secondary theme the data is not comprehensive for  ESF/YEI. 
2. Comparing changes in planned amounts over time (reprogramming)

Over the 10 year period of the programmes (2014-2020 + 3 year closure period) the focus of the programmes may be modified when justified. Frequently the modifications involve realloactions of the planned investments to adapt to changing demands, socio-economic needs or strategic priorities. Using the annualised "planned vs implemented" data set you can compare changes in planned amounts year on year.  This is highly detailed. 

3. Annual reporting of financial data brings implementation data covering all dimensions 

The annual reporting includes information on the 5 dimension in the programmes and on thee additional dimensions:

  • Location Dimension: this involved Nuts 3 or NUTS 2 codes for the geographic location of the projects selected; 
  • Economic dimension:  this provides information on a simplified NACE industrial and services sectors (particularly useful in understanding the sectoral nature of research, innovation or business support when reported) (24 codes);
  • Thematic objective dimension: only for the ERDF and Cohesion Fund (12 codes).
The chart below shows the aggregated values for all 8 dimension (selected values and spending by selected projects) with filters by year, fund and Member State. 
4. Combining categorisation data on "planned" and "implemented values" 

A specific dataset contains data to allow comparison between the latest planned amounts and the data reported annually on the implementation of the investment finances. This dataset is in timeseries and shows the progress over time in selection of project (projects decided following selection procedures) and the expenditure by those projects (spending = expenditure declared to the programe). The chart below shows the EU aggregate picture for the 4 intervention field codes dealing with high speed broadband. The filters allow users to see progress over time and to change the fund,, intervention field codes and country-ies.

5. Climate and Biodiversity tracking: two specific uses
An innovation in 2014-2020 was the use of the categorisation for climate tracking - check out this article to find more detail on the tracking mechanism and dedicated climate action charts. 
Based on an agreement between Commission services - REGIO and Environment - we have also applied weighting to specific intervention fields to allow tracking of investments that support biodiversity actions using the same data source. 

Data resources and more reading: 
Period 2014-2020:
Period 2007-2013
Author REGIO.B2/ JW    Date of text: February 2019